Guest Posting: 18 Tips for Mastering Public Speaking, by Kyle Ingham

Kyle IngamKyle Ingham is the founder of The Distilled Man, a website that helps men learn essential “gentlemanly” skills. Like knowing how to cook a perfect steak. How to mix a cocktail. Or how to give a toast. The Distilled Man is dedicated to giving guys a second chance to discover these lost “gentlemanly” arts. Click here to get a free copy of his new ebook, “48-Hour Gentleman.”

18 Tips for Mastering Public Speaking, by Kyle Ingham

I can still remember my worst public speaking moment.

I had just started at this ad agency and our new client was coming to the office to do a meet and greet.

I desperately wanted to make a good first impression. I had to show what I was made of.

I’m not generally a shy guy, but it turned into one of those awful public speaking moments everyone fears. As I stood up in the front of the room, my heart raced, my palms sweated, I couldn’t catch my breath…

But worst of all, as I spoke, I had this self-sabotage commentary running through my head: “Oh. My. God….I wish I could just STOP. I wish I could just FINISH right now. But everyone’s eyes are on ME…”

Fortunately, the moment did eventually pass. And I made it through the meeting without wetting my pants or throwing up on a client. I even managed not to get fired. My boss was gracious about it, saying later that maybe I could use a bit more practice with public speaking, “you know, to clean up some of the umm’s, etc.” Yeah, there were those, too.

I never had a moment quite that bad again. But over the years, sometimes I’ve felt like my public speaking skills were just as inconsistent and elusive as my pool game: sometimes I was epic, other times I was epically bad. And for awhile I couldn’t seem to figure out when the Steve Jobs version of me was going to show up and when it was going to be Steve Urkel.

I wish there was some magic bullet—some secret—to amazing public speaking. But what I’ve learned after years of trial and error is that the solution isn’t that sexy. It’s like other things in life: great public speaking comes from practice, plus a few little tricks that can improve your chances of success.

I can’t help you with the practice part, you’re on your own there. But here are 18 tips that will help you avoid stage fright and take your public speaking skills to a new level:

1. Connect with the audience before you speak

A crowd is scary, but individuals aren’t. If you can just remember that the crowd you’re getting in front of is just made up of individual people you’ll be okay. Before the presentation, try to meet as many people as you can—introduce yourself. You’ll find that most of these people are just regular humans. Everyday people.

The typical advice is to imagine your audience in your underwear. At some events that may not be very pleasurable. So, as a close second, just try to connect with them as people, find out about their personal life, their hobbies, their family. It will make you feel much more at ease when you’re up on stage later looking out in the audience: you won’t see a random scowling audience member, you’ll see Jason, the accountant from Pittsburgh who has 2 daughters and loves to watch karate movies and drink PBR when his wife goes on yoga retreats.

2. Stand up straight and look sharp

Some people think what they say while giving a speech is the most important thing. Turns out that according to research, people’s perception of public speakers is most influenced by 2 things: one is how you appear visually—do you look confident, are you standing up straight? The other is how your voice sounds—does it sound commanding, are you using interesting inflection?

Standing up straight is maybe 60% of the battle. If you just stand up there in front of the audience and LOOK confident, you’re already more than halfway to being a great speaker.

3. Use gestures deliberately and make them count

One of the most nerve-racking things to think about when you’re up in front of an audience is what to do with your hands. A lot of speaking coaches will say that you should try to keep them down at your sides and not gesture too much. But this is easier said than done. And besides, it’s natural for people talk with their hands. I say, don’t worry about it. Use your hands the way that you would talk when speaking with someone one-on-one.

The key, however is to avoid the appearance of “flailing” where there’s too much hand motion. When using your hands, it’s important to be deliberate—keep your gestures big and purposeful. Whenever possible, if you have numbered points, use your hand to clearly call out the number for each point. “There are 3 things…[hold up 3 sign]. The first point is [hold up 1 finger].” It may seem like it’s overkill and like you’re playing charades, but this really helps the audience follow your points.

4. Breathe…Then Keep Breathing

While it’s pretty basic advice, it absolutely needs to be said. If you don’t control your breathing, you’re allowing your body to stay in that initial “fight or flight” stage that you may have felt right before you walked up there. In contrast, when you slow yourself down with deep, oxygen-rich breaths, you are able to be in the moment, you’re able to loosen up your body and most importantly, able to think on your feet. When you can think on your feet you inhabit your speech more, so you’re not just reciting lines. You believe each point and feeling the weight of each statement as you deliver it, which ultimately makes it more believable and engaging for the audience.

5. Maintain eye contact

Eye contact is the key to connecting with your audience. While it may sound touchy-feely, there is a definite exchange of energy when a speaker scans the room, connecting with individuals. If you’ve ever witnessed a speaker who just looked off into space vs. a dynamic speaker who made it a point to connect with a few individuals, the difference is palpable.

From a purely practical standpoint, making eye contact with your audience has the effect of keeping everyone awake: ”I better pay attention, he might pick me next.” What’s also interesting is that by looking at a single individual and connecting with them, often others around them think you’re looking at them as well. Sort of like 3 for the price of one…

6. Jump right in with dramatic flair

One of the signs of a seasoned presenter is the ability to launch their presentation and immediately hook you. None of this “ok, I’ll go ahead and start now.” Or, “Uh hi guys, uh thanks for having me here.” A seasoned presenter doesn’t ever make you think about the fact that they’re presenting. Instead, from the moment the presenter walks up there, everything they do is part of controlling your experience of their presentation.

A few great ways to start with dramatic flair are to begin with a famous quote, mention a key statistic, ask a provocative question, mention a news item, begin with a personal revelation of some kind (Last Tuesday was the first time I ever used deodorant!). Or, if you’re really feeling ballsy, the most masterful presenters begin with a dramatic pause. Yep, just you and the audience, separated by a big pregnant pause. It’s like just in that moment when the audience has just quieted as they see you coming up, you just stop, breathe and survey the room. When done well it can be powerful: you could hear a pin drop. The audience is on the edge of their seats. And that brief tension heightens what you say right after that. Like you’ve withheld water, and finally quenched their thirst.

7. Be a Storyteller

The best public speakers don’t just give you their point of view in a series of statements. They paint pictures with their words. They use the age-old advice in writing: show, don’t tell. Instead of telling you how bad things are in Detroit, they tell you a story about a man with 4 kids and a wife who used to make great money at the auto plant until he lost his job and now has to collect cans and do odd jobs to make ends meet.

Humans are hard-wired to get involved with stories. Stories are like oratory crack: as soon as we hear a little bit of a story, we gotta have more. “But how does it end? Does he end up finding another job?” What’s great about this is that telling a series of stories can help you reinforce one singular point in rich ways. Many great books do the same thing: Dale Carnegie’s How to Win Friends & Influence People (affiliate link) makes maybe 3 points total, but reinforces them with about 30 different stories, each story adding another layer of persuasiveness.

8. Master the pause, play the empty space

One of the biggest signs of a novice speaker—and you’ll notice this in interviews as well—is the inclination to fill the empty space. As amateurs, we’re worried if we pause too long, it may sound unintelligent. In fact, the opposite is true. Some of the most masterful public speakers deliberately pause between points. A well-paced pause has an amazing effect. If the audience has been listening, it has the effect of being a massive punctuation on the previous point. Or it has the effect of building suspense for the point to come. From a practical standpoint, it also allows the audience a moment to digest the point you’ve just communicated and let it sink in.

It reminds me of a quote I heard about music once: the best soloists (think Miles Davis) don’t just play the notes, they play the empty space between the notes. It’s not just the notes that communicate feeling and tone and emotion; it’s the way they’re spaced out and they way they are punctuated and amplified by silence. So too with dramatic pauses in public speaking.

9. Recharge on individuals

One of the best ways to keep the fear of the crowd from psyching you out is to pay attention to the individuals, and use them to “recharge” when you can—to regain your mojo. When you start to feel yourself getting nervous, look to one individual and stay with them for a bit. Look into their eyes as you speak. There’s a 99% chance that when you focus on them, they’re going to be highly intent on looking back at you, and if they can sense you’re feeling a little nervous, they’ll give you some encouragement through their intent gaze and encouraging smile. Stay with them a moment, until you feel like you’ve regained your stride, and then move on to other audience members.

10. Engage with the audience during the talk

Another way to calm your own nerves and keep the audience attentive is to engage them early and often. Some of the best speakers keep an audience on the edge of their seats by involving them throughout their presentation. An easy way to do this is by asking the audience questions—especially at the start. “How many of your have ever…raise your hands?” By forcing them to physically get involved, they can’t help but be engaged. I mean, who know what you’re going to make them do next? You’d also be surprised at how quickly this gets rid of any of your nerves. This is one of the best ways to remember that you’re not standing in front of some faceless crowd silently judging you. These people are just individuals…who hope you don’t put them on the spot next.

11. Never memorize, but cheat sheets are ok

You should never memorize your speech. You’re much better off if you can try to remember the main points—and think about those as the skeleton that you’re going to add “meat” to as you speak. When you memorize your speech word for word, all it takes is forgetting a few key sentences and you can be totally thrown off. And even if you do pull it off, unless you’re very good, it can come across as wooden—people can tell you’re reciting a script and it’s less engaging. If you need a cheat-sheet, it’s ok to use prompt cards with some of your high-level points jotted down or an outline you can refer back to.

12. Know What You’re Talking About

Nothing will take the edge off the nerves as much the simple knowledge that you actually know the topic you’re speaking about. There were times I would worry about doing a presentation because I was fretting over the details. Then I would remember, hey I know this stuff. If I was sitting on an airplane next to someone we could chat about this and I could hold my own. Not that I would stop preparing and just wing it. But it helps give you a certain fortitude.

You may think, well when would I present on something I’m not knowledgeable about? Where I’ve seen it happen most often is in a group presentation where the content gets carved up and shared by multiple presenters. Especially if you’re the junior person, you may end up getting stuck with a few odds and ends. And while you can speak to the surface level to all these things, it pays to do some research and make sure you have a deeper comfort-level with the subject matter.

13. Practice, Practice, Then Practice some more

Most people don’t practice their presentations enough, and it shows. I’ve written about this before in the context of best man speeches. If you really want to wow your audience, you need to go through it multiple times until it becomes muscle memory. Again, not that you should count on memorizing the words verbatim. It’s more that you should be getting used to the cadence and the dramatic pauses. And the sections where you might engage the audience. Or the way you’ll use a visual aid. In The Art of the Start (affiliate link), Guy Kawasaki recommends practicing a presentation at least 25 times. He says that ironically, the more you practice, the easier it is for you to sound natural, like you’re delivering it off the cuff. Another trick as you’re practicing is to film yourself or record the audio. The first watch is going to be painful, but you’ll pick up on some fine-tuning things you may not have noticed otherwise.

14.Visualize Success

Henry Ford said “Whether you think you can or think you can’t, you’re right.” It’s easy to self-sabotage even before you go on stage and think “oh boy, I’m going to bomb!” But as Ford’s quote reminds us, it’s just as easy to psyche ourselves into believing that we’ll succeed. So why not give ourselves an advantage by being positive? Visualize success—actual success. Visualize confidently delivering your speech, and looking out to see the women swooning, grown men crying, old men stomping their canes in uproarious approval (ok, maybe it won’t be quite like that, but you get the idea).

15. Know Your Audience

Another critically important tip is to really know your audience. The more you know about who you’re speaking to, the more you can tailor your message to them. Also, the more you’ll remember that these are just people—not some abstract scary audience who’s judging you. Most importantly, it reminds you that your presentation is part of a dialog. Even though you might be the only one on stage with a mic, you need to treat it like a dialog. You should be speaking with them, not at them.

16. Structure your presentation

As you’re preparing a presentation, sometimes it’s easy to get lost in all the details. “What am I even trying say here, or am just filling time?” And if you feel that way, you can imagine how your audience feels when you get up there. If you take the time to map out the high-level structure of your presentation, it can go a long way to making your planning and prep easier. But it also makes it clearer for the audience. The best way is to use the old approach of “tell ‘em what you’re going to tell ‘em, tell ‘em, then tell ‘em what you told ‘em.” You may think that repeating your main point 3 times is overkill in a short presentation, but In fact it’s critical to drive home your point. Even better is to include some signposts along the way so your audience knows where you are. For example:

I’m going to tell you 3 reasons that Rocky Road ice cream should be declared the US national dessert
The first reason Rocky Road should be declared the national dessert…
The second reason…
The third and final reason…
So, I think I’ve shared some compelling reasons why Rocky Road should be formally recognized by our country for the superior dessert that it is. I urge you all to write your congressmen, thank you!

The sad fact is that the audience isn’t always hanging on your every word. They might zone out for a moment. They might have to check their smartphone. So it helps to ensure your presentation is well-structured and reinforces your main point consistently throughout.

17. Spend some time in the space if you can

While this may not help everyone, I find it helpful if I know the venue or the room where I’m going to speak. That way I can truly visualize what it’s going to be like when I’m up there. Sometimes, if you envisioned the room setup a different way it can throw you off when you get up there.

18. Embrace Nerves

As a novice presenter, when you get anxious before your presentation, you immediately think, “oh no, I’m just going to get way too nervous and not be able to regain my composure on stage.” What’s reassuring is that almost all of the greatest presenters say they are a little nervous right before going on stage. In The Exceptional Presenter (affiliate link), Timothy Koegel writes about how Johnny Carson did 4000 shows for the Tonight Show, and said he was always a little nervous right before going on stage. Other performers have said similar things, and gone so far as to say that the moment they don’t feel a twinge of that last-minute nervousness, they’ll know it’s time to give up show biz—it would be a sign their heart’s no longer in it.

So, next time you feel nervous right before getting up there, take comfort in knowing it happens to everyone, even the pros. And nerves can be your friend: when you are a little nervous at the beginning of your presentation, your senses are sharpened, your energy level is up, it shows the audience that you care about this moment.

Conclusion

Again, there’s no real magic fix for avoiding stage fright and being a more effective public speaker. The best thing is just to continue getting up on stage and taking advantage of opportunities to practice. And beyond that, the tips above—if consistently used—can help you hone your presentation skills so you can crush stage fright and become a masterful public speaker.

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Storytelling and presenting explained

Following my recent post about graphic recording videos I’ve been amazed at the variety of entertaining and instructional material that’s out there in this format.

Analytical Storytelling

This video from Harrison Metal summarizes Barbara Minto’s pyramid structure for a talk designed to convince an analytic audience. It shows why presenting your ideas organized as a pyramid under a single point to makes them easy for the audience to grasp.

Storytelling & Presenting 1: Thank You, Barbara Minto from Harrison Metal on Vimeo.

Inspirational Storytelling

This video showcases Hollywood screenwriter Robert McKee’s basic storytelling structure where a protagonist’s life is thrown off balance by an inciting incident. It’s a nice summary of the ideas that are explored in McKee’s well-known book Story: Substance, Structure, Style and the Principles of Screenwriting

Storytelling & Presenting 2: Thank You, Robert McKee from Harrison Metal on Vimeo.

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Winston Churchill analyses the Scaffolding of Rhetoric

Winston Churchill In 1897, while serving as a 22-year-old Army officer in India, Winston Churchill wrote an unpublished essay The Scaffolding of Rhetoric. It begins, with considerable prescience given Churchill’s later career, with an appreciation of the lasting power of public speaking:

Of all the talents bestowed upon men, none is so precious as the gift of oratory. He who enjoys it wields a power more durable than that of a great king. He is an independent force in the world. Abandoned by his party, betrayed by his friends, stripped of his offices, whoever can command this power is still formidable.

Churchill refutes the idea that oratory and rhetoric are no longer relevant. Today, this might be claimed because of the influence of YouTube and Twitter, in 1897 people blamed “the newspaper … and the growing knowledge of men”.

He states that the orator “is the embodiment of the passions of the multitude.” But warned that “before he can inspire them with any emotion he must be swayed by it himself.”

He notes the features all great speeches and public speakers have in common:

  1. A “striking presence” is necessary. But this does not mean classic good looks. “Often small, ugly or deformed he is invested with a personal significance…”. Indeed, Churchill claims from first-hand experience that “a slight and not unpleasing stammer or impediment has been of some assistance in securing the attention of the audience…”
  2. Correctness of diction and an exact appreciation of words. It’s best the speaker use “short, homely words of common usage so long as such words can fully express their thoughts and feelings.”
  3. Rhythm, or a cadence that more resembles blank verse than prose. In other words, he’s reminding us we must write for the ear, not the eye. Indeed, James Humes notes in Speak Like Churchill, Stand Like Lincoln that he once critiqued the text of a speech by Anthony Eden because there were too many semi-colons and never a dash.
  4. The accumulation of argument, via a series of facts pointing in a common direction, coupled with “waves of sound and vivid pictures.”
  5. The use of analogy which “leads to conviction rather than to proof” and has an electrifying effect on an audience.
  6. A “tendency to wild extravagance of language…so wild that reason recoils.” Indeed, Churchill notes that the power of oratory is so great that, were it not for the need for the speaker to be sincere before he can be persuasive, oratory could easily incite violence, and be judged a crime.

Churchill, like the young Cicero who spent two years studying rhetoric, was focused early in his career on learning the art and science of public speaking. Both prospered as a result.

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Visual communication with Graphic Recordings

I’ve been impressed with a number of videos on YouTube that use hand-drawn images to convey complex information.

One example from RSA Animate features Dave Coplin, Chief Envisioning Officer at Microsoft in the UK, who imagines what might be possible if more organizations embraced the full, empowering potential of technology and encouraged a truly open, collaborative and flexible working culture. He asks how can we get people more engaged, more productive, and happier at work? Is technology part of the problem — and could it also be part of the solution? The animation makes for compelling viewing, so be sure to watch it in full screen mode:

Graphic recording can also be used to translate conversations into organized visuals on large paper live in front of a group event such as a workshop or conference. It’s a powerful tool for bridging gaps in communication and acknowledging everyone’s point of view in the ‘big picture’.

Here’s a video from Tanya Gadsby who is a graphic recorder and whiteboard video artist based in Victoria, BC, that explains more about graphic recording:

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Guest Posting: Non-Verbal Techniques in a Large Group Forum, by Theresa Zagnoli

Theresa ZagnoliTheresa Zagnoli has 28 years of experience providing practical trial expertise and communication solutions as a jury consultant, communication expert and founding CEO of Zagnoli McEvoy Foley LLC in Chicago. She counsels attorneys, witnesses, and CEOs on how to be effectively public speakers in and out of the courtroom.
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Non-Verbal Techniques in a Large Group Forum, by Theresa Zagnoli

By now most people have heard of body language and its usefulness in personal and small group business relations. Body language, better termed non-verbal communication, is often more responsible than our words for whether the audience is moved. It is often ignored when speaking to a large group. When facing an auditorium full of listeners, you have more tools to work with than your mic and the slide show.

Just as a reminder, the components of non-verbal communication are: body posture/movement, hand and arm gestures, artifacts such as accessories or clothes, facial expressions, eye contact, space use and finally, even sound or voice when not considering actual words.

Since most of us are not rock stars or preachers, we do not have a following. Our goal and obligation on stage is generally to entertain while simultaneously teaching the audience something useful about business or life, or both. That makes credibility paramount. The key component of credibility is dynamism and the root of dynamism is energy.

Therefore all non-verbal efforts in speaking to a large audience should be devoted toward demonstrating a controlled but strong aura of energy. Showing vitality is also an effective way to charm your audience. Cicero explains that all communication must start with one person’s ability to charm another in order to proceed through the other steps to successfully communicate. People are drawn to personal energy like bugs to a zapper. They can’t help themselves.

Showing energy on stage is tricky. The energy cannot be frenetic and yet it cannot be so choreographed that it appears unnatural. This is where using your entire non-verbal arsenal is advantageous.

Start with the stage itself. A confident speaker does not hide behind a podium –- use the space you are given. Watch any performer and you will see that most move from the center of the stage.

Once the safety of the podium has been left behind, the feeling of security goes with it. Now what do you do with your hands instead of allowing them to hang limply by your sides? There are two reasons to gesture: for emphasis and for demonstration. Plan gestures ahead of time by reviewing your script to look for opportunities to punch up the words with a gesture of instruction or accent.

You may think that making eye contact with 300 people is impossible. So instead you sweep your gaze across the audience thinking you are reaching everyone, while in reality you have reached no one. Watch a good comedian and you will see that he or she makes eye contact and basically has a conversation with different people in the audience. The comedian knows that he has to connect with his audience, and he has to do it one person at a time. Will he get to everyone in a venue that holds a thousand fans? No. But each person attending your speech will see that you care enough to make contact with a single person time and again. This is interpreted as caring and interest in the audience. It doesn’t matter if each person gets individual attention; it only matters that some do.

Men and women have different rules when it comes to dress and props. You can choose to follow these rules or break them. Both strategies will have fallout. For example, if you show up in what you are ‘supposed’ to be wearing you will meet the audience’s expectations but will not be doing anything to surpass their expectations. If you color outside the lines, you might surpass what was expected, showing that your are delightful and refreshing, only to find some will be immediately put off because your dress feels wrong to them. Evaluate each situation.

If you have the opportunity to read Horton Hears a Who to the third grade class, get an elephant head and feet, a t-shirt and paint your face. Showing up dressed like you are on your way to work sends the message to the 3rd grade that they are just an inconvenience on your way to the office. It shows that no energy was invested in the task.

On the other hand, if your goal is to show the properties and benefits of a new anxiety drug, a funny hat will not serve you.

While those two examples are clear, there is plenty of room in between to stretch your creativity beyond the audience’s expectations — if not in what you wear, then maybe through a prop. This year, I spoke to an organization about a legal case involving a baseball bat. I brought a bat with me to use as a prop. Four of us spoke on the same case, and I was the only one to bring props. Others brought slides or spoke dramatically and eloquently. I assume I did too, but I had a bat. They moved their arms and legs, gesturing with their hands to show how the bat was swung and what it hit — nice — but I had a bat!

Being aware of your non-verbal communication and using these tools to transmit the correct energy to your audience can make all the difference in how you are received and, ultimately, how effectively your message is delivered.

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The Power of the Pause

The most telling sign of an amateur speaker is their inability to pace themselves and speak slowly. If you can learn to get comfortable with silence and pauses, the quality of your delivery will improve instantly. Here is an excellent primer from Nadine Hanafi on five ways to help you use the silent pause effectively.

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A Peridoic Table of Visualization Methods

Swiss researchers Ralph Lengler & Martin J. Eppler from the Institute of Corporate Communication (how cool is that!) at the University of Lugano have created a “periodic table” of 100 visualization methods. They describe their table in their 2007 research paper Towards A Periodic Table of Visualization Methods for Management

Data Visualization Periodic Table

(Click to enlarge)

The periodic table is broken down into data visualization, information visualization, concept visualization, strategy visualization, metaphor visualization, and compound visualization.

Their Visual Literacy website contains an interactive version of the table. Simply by hovering over each box in the table, an example appears in a pop-up window with an illustration of each of the elements.

Try it here.

Supply Demand CurveThe examples range from the simple supply demand curve (Su) with a X/Y axis to the complex sankey diagram (Sa) — a specific type of flow diagram in which the width of the arrows is shown proportionally to the flow quantity.Sankey Diagram

While their classification tool might offend the purists, this is a fun source of ideas for your next PowerPoint presentation. However, in terms of a tool that helps classify and solve problems while selling ideas with pictures, nothing beats Dan Roam’s excellent Visual thinking Codex from his book The Back of the Napkin:

Data Visualization Periodic Table

(Click to enlarge)

Thanks to George for letting me know about the visualization table.

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Book Review: Hack Attack, by Nick Davies

Hack AttackHack Attack, Nick Davies’s exhaustively researched exposé – subtitled “How the truth caught up with Rupert Murdoch” – details how the press baron and key members of his staff pulled the levers of power in British politics and business during the six years from 2008 to 2014. While denying and lying, they slipped in and out the side-door of Number 10 for drinks with the prime minister, rubbing shoulders with the power elite who lived in fear of the ability of mass circulation newspapers to influence elections and destroy lives.

A sprawling cast of characters fill the pages of Hack Attack: the bullying editors and hapless reporters of the Fleet Street tabloid newspapers; members of the Queen’s household in Buckingham Palace; prime ministers and members of the government in Whitehall and Downing Street; petty criminals and senior policemen; wide boys and blagging operatives; movers and shakers, celebrities and philanderers; and behind it all the spectral presence of one of the world’s most powerful men – media tycoon Rupert Murdoch.

Davies is the reporter on the left-of-center Guardian newspaper who ran the first stories about the practice of phone hacking. His well-written report reads like a thriller. It is a compulsive page-turner. His bravery in pursuit of the truth is quite startling. One suspects that in any other country than Britain he would have been “disappeared” for dishing the dirt as he has. The scope of the cover-up he exposes makes Woodward and Bernstein, in an earlier era, seem bush league. They had Deep Throat. He has anonymous sources he code-names “Sapphire”, “Ovid” and “Jingle”. They had a cover-up about one crime, the Watergate break-in. He has a decade of systematic illegal activity by reporters and editors who illegally “hacked” the mobile phone voicemails of anyone and everyone who could provide source material for their stories. They hacked the Royal Family, they hacked members of the British Cabinet, sports stars and everyday citizens. Most notoriously, they hacked the cell phone of a murdered teenage schoolgirl. The private messages they listened to were material for news reports, most often in the now defunct News of The World, a Murdoch paper closed as a direct result of Davies’s investigative journalism. Davies uncovers the secrets and lies and reveals how the police in Scotland Yard kept a lid on it for years.

Hack Attack is a must-read for anyone who lives in the UK and wants to hear how they were lied to by the establishment, or, as in my own case, resides in the USA and wonders about the corporate morality of Murdoch’s henchmen on the Wall Street Journal and those who deliver “fair and balanced” reporting on Fox News.

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The Andrometer – how do you measure up?

Sir William JonesSir William Jones (1746 – 1794) a linguist and hyperpolyglot who knew 13 languages thoroughly and another 28 reasonably well, was an Oxford graduate and lawyer who moved to India where he studied Sanskrit.

A recent article in Mental Floss notes that as a young man, while working as a tutor to English nobility, Jones developed what he called an “Andrometer”, or timeline, to check that a person’s moral and intellectual development was on track.

The Andrometer

(Click to enlarge)

Jones explained that this

…enables you to measure every man’s merit by looking for his age in the scale, and then comparing it with the other side, and seeing to what degree he has risen in arts, sciences, and ornamental qualifications.

I find it fascinating that the checklist includes early focus on the art of rhetoric (aka. oratory or public speaking), starting around age 16, continuing with exercises in public speaking and the study of Ancient Orators (presumably Cicero, Quintilian and the like).

Although the list might have been prepared tongue-in-cheek, the focus on rhetoric in a well-rounded education certainly featured in ancient Greece and Rome and continued through to the late 19th century.

According to Jones, by the time a person is in their mid-30′s they should focus on improving their habits of eloquence and start to publish their speeches. At age 38 the checklist states “Eloquence perfect”.

At age 62, we are to enjoy “a glorious retirement” (if only!) and, after three score years and ten, engage in “Preparation for ETERNITY.” Jones, unfortunately, only made it to 47, dying of overwork in Calcutta.

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How to use Google auto-complete to generate content

Google Auto-Complete
If you are stuck for a rhetorical question to use as a speech opening, or just want to see what is a popular about a topic, you can use Google to ask:

Why is [topic] so…

before pressing ‘Enter’ Google will kick in with an ‘auto-complete’ algorithm that predicts what you are searching for, based on how often past users have searched for a term.

The results are absolutely fascinating.

While Google might change over time, here’s the current results showing the first single word returned for a variety of places, people, pastimes and products that would be useful material for a speaker to comment on by noting that “People ask…I can tell you that in my experience…”:

Why is England so rainy
Why is Ireland so green
Why is Scotland so poor
Why is France so liberal
Why is the USA so hated

Why is New York City so big
Why is Dallas so boring
Why is Minneapolis so expensive
Why is Beijing so polluted
Why is the Equator so hot

Why is President Obama so arrogant
Why is John Lennon so influential
Why is Hitler so cool (!)
Why is Fox News so bad
Why is the BBC so good

Why is cycling so addictive
Why is chess so hard
Why is skiing so fun
Why is scuba diving so tiring
Why is cricket so popular

Why is sugar so addictive
Why is tobacco so popular
Why is lettuce so bitter
Why is Marmite so salty
Why is Vegemite so disgusting

Try it yourself and see. Simply enter the topic of your next speech into Google and let auto-complete suggest a word or phrase you can use as an opening.

Why is this so simple?

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